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Census

What is a census?
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population (Source: Wikipedia.com). A wildlife census determines three things: (1) the abundance and distribution of wildlife species, (2) the trend in species numbers compared with past counts, and (3) the extent of human activities in the ecosystem. This information is used to identify threats to wildlife and design conservation activities that address these threats. (Source: African wildlife foundation, www.awf.org)
Information on the distribution of tigers in Periyar Tiger Reserve is analysed annually based on sign survey carried out by the Tiger Monitoring Team, as well as from daily reports of wildlife encounters by staff during routine patrolling. In addition, data on encounter rate is also being collectd as part of the Al India Tiger Monitoring Programme and camera trapping exercises every year. 
Details of estimation of tigers in PTR

Year of Census

Carried out by

Number of Tigers in PTR

Technique used

1978

KFD

34

Pugmark method

1987

KFD

45

1988

KFD

45

1989

KFD

46

1991

KFD

46

1993

KFD/KFRI

33

1995

KFD

39

1996

KFD

30

1997

KFD/KFRI

40

2000

KFD

36

2002

Easa

21

2002

KFD/KFRI

29±3

2006

WII

23*

Camera trap technique

2008

Tiger Reserve Management

24**

* - Estimation is for the landscape unit with an extent of 2,314 km2 of tiger occupancy habitat.
** - In 640km2 of the TR 24 adult tigers are estimated.

Census figures of mammalian species from 1978 to 2002 in Periyar Tiger Reserve

 

#

Name of the Animal

1978

1987

1988

1989

1991

1993

1995

1996

1997

2000

2002

1

Bonnet macaque

10 troops

50 Nos.

65 Nos.

32 Nos.

*

43 Nos.

*

*

4.84 D

128 Nos.

102 Nos./0.0759 D

2

LTM

11 troops

200 Nos.

235 Nos.

182 Nos.

*

90 Nos.

*

*

60 Nos.

178 Nos.

210 Nos.

3

Nilgiri Langur

170 troops

300 Nos.

839 Nos.

765 Nos.

*

1530 Nos.

*

*

6.59 D/155 Nos.

322 Nos.

573 Nos. (0.6495 D)

4

Sambar deer

452 Nos.

490 Nos.

560 Nos.

580 Nos.

*

10.37 D

*

*

86 Nos./0.27 D

57 Nos.

249 Nos. (0.2495 D)

5

Gaur

100 Nos.

350 Nos.

378 Nos.

412 Nos.

*

1.59 D

*

*

108 Nos./0.42D

201 Nos.

438 Nos. (0.5376 D)

6

Tiger

34 Nos.

45 Nos.

45 Nos.

46 Nos.

46 Nos.

33 Nos.

39 Nos.

30 Nos.

40 Nos.

36 Nos.

32 Nos.

7

Leopard

14 Nos.

26 Nos.

27 Nos.

21 Nos.

*

7 D

*

*

 

23 Nos.

8 Nos.

8

Wild dog

49 packs

55 Nos.

64 Nos.

62 Nos.

*

216.6 D/E

*

*

653.61 D/E

*

18 Nos. (1630.88 D/E)

9

Elephant

588 Nos.

950 Nos.

1020 Nos.

980 Nos.

*

615 Nos.

*

*

175 Nos./0.72 D

144 Nos.

177 Nos. (0.1595 D)

10

Wild boar

500 Nos.

1100 Nos.

1300 Nos.

1290 Nos.

*

27.14 D

*

*

119 Nos./0.43 D

224 Nos.

422 Nos. (0.4951 D)

11

Barking deer

*

*

*

*

*

30 Nos.

*

*

30 Nos./3992.47 D/E

8 Nos.

58 Nos. (2.1781 D)

12

Mouse deer

*

*

*

*

*

200 D/E

*

*

1049.52 D/E

4 Nos.

8 Nos. (837.16 D/E)

13

MG Squirrel

*

*

*

*

*

6.75 D

*

*

141 Nos./0.26 D

90 Nos.

208 Nos. (0.2186 D)

14

Indian porcupine

*

*

*

*

*

417.5 D/E

*

*

1188.28 D/E

1 No.

1653.48 D/E

15

Small Indian Civet

*

*

*

*

*

84.29 D/E

*

*

929.44 D/E

*

344.24 D/E

16

Common palm civet

*

*

*

*

*

218.11 D/E

*

*

1135.04 D/E

4 Nos.

1043.44 D/E

17

Sloth bear

*

*

*

*

*

284.68DS

*

*

3026.78 D/E

3 Nos.

3 Nos. (1502.20 D/E)


Note
  • * - No estimate available
  • Nos. - Total Number
  • D- Density/ sq.km
  • D/E - Density of indirect evidence/ sq.km.
  • DS - Density of scat/ sq.km.
  • DO - Direct observation per sq.km.
  • 1993* - The census was held from 30/4 to 3/5.93 with public involvement and was organized and analysed by Kerala Forest

Research Institute, Peechi.

  • 1996* - The census was held from 6th to 10th December 1996 with public involvement and was organized by park authorities.
  • Many of the pugmarks could not be taken, since the unexpected rains due to freak cyclonic movement had partially obliterated them
  • 1997 - The census was held from 28.4.97 to 3.5.97 with public involvement and was organized and analysed by Kerala
  • Forest Research Institute, Peechi.
  • 2000 - The census was conducted by the park authorities. The figures shown is only by direct sighting of all the animals
  • 2002 - The census was carried out with public involvement and was organized and analysed by Kerala Forest Research
  • Institute, Peechi.



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